14 Oct 2021

Meat analogues are plant-based protein sources high in essential amino acids, low saturated fat, and cholesterol-free. Customers who are concerned about their well-being and health and the ecological, ethical, and social elements of eating animal meat are interested in meat analogues, as are individuals who are unable to consume animal meat due to expense, health issues, etc, and religious constraints. Protein is the most common protein element in meat analogues (50 to 95% dry matter), and soy protein and wheat gluten are the most commonly utilized protein components because they mimic the texture, look, functioning, and nutritional value of meat. 

Corn starch is commonly employed as a binding agent in meat analogues due to its lack of odour and taste, strong water absorption capacity (producing thickening), and its ability to enhance protein molecular cohesiveness.

Choice of extrusion type, screw speed, and wheat gluten on cooking stability of meat analogues – Formulation Challenges


Formulation

It has been observed that a 90:10 mix of soy protein isolate and starch provided more texturization than pure soy protein isolates [1]. Another formula was 60:40:5[2], which consisted of soy protein isolate, wheat gluten, and starch. Without vital wheat gluten (WG), the formula consisted of a 90:10 combination of isolated soy protein (ISP) and corn starch (CS), with 59.12 g kg-1 moisture and 873.52 g kg-1 protein. The WG formula consisted of 50:40:10 combinations of ISP, WG, and CS, resulting in 63.92 g kg-1 moisture and 846.01 g kg-1 protein.

Extrusion cooking

Extrusion cooking is now thought to be a method for producing meat analogues by combining high temperature, pressure, and shear, resulting in melting protein molecules, intense mixing, and structure development. Extrusion cooking removes harsh flavours and odours. Extrusion cooking at low moisture creates enlarged meat analogues with variable fibre content. Products are dried and packaged for storage after extrusion cooking, making them easy to handle and store, with a long shelf life. These items, however, require hydration before ingestion. Meanwhile, employing a lengthy cooling die during extrusion cooking, high-moisture applications may provide new and quality meat analogues with a pleasant fibrous texture. Although the look and eating feel are similar to cooked meats, these items have a short shelf life.

The findings reveal that [3], extrusion types and wheat gluten addition had a significant impact on physicochemical parameters essential in regulating the fibrous texture of the final product. In contrast, screw speed only had a modest impact on springiness. Using the same formula and screw speed, all high-moisture meat analogues (HMMAs) had a better integrity index, stronger springiness stability, and cutting strength than low-moisture meat analogues (LMMAs). Still, the nitrogen solubility index of HMMAs was lower. The greater cross-link production in HMMAs is thought to occur in the cooling die section, based on the physicochemical characteristics found.

Extrudates with a fibrous and compact structure similar to that of muscle meat and a higher integrity index and texture stability may be produced using high-moisture extrusion cooking and the addition of 400 g kg-1 wheat gluten to the recipe.

Reference

[1] Gu BY and Ryu GH, Effects of barrel temperature and addition of corn starch on physical properties of extruded soy protein isolate. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 47:485–491 (2018). https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2018.47.4.485

[2] Liu K and Hsieh FH, Protein-protein interactions during high-moisture extrusion for fibrous meat analogues and comparison of protein solubility methods using different solvent systems. J Agric Food Chem 56:2681–2687 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1021/jf073343q

[3] Samard, Sasimaporn, Bon‐Yeob Gu, and Gi‐Hyung Ryu. "Effects of extrusion types, screw speed and addition of wheat gluten on physicochemical characteristics and cooking stability of meat analogues." Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 99, no. 11 (2019): 4922-4931.

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12 Oct 2021

Since the middle of the past century, frozen food has been a popular item on grocery lists due to the ease it offers. However, as reports regarding the health risks of processed meals have become more widely publicised, more individuals have decided to reject not only TV dinners, but all frozen foods. It's important to make health-conscious choices when it comes to diet, yet many individuals make these decisions based on misunderstandings about how frozen foods are created.



Preparation

When we think of factory-produced food, substandard ingredients being cooked with too many preservatives, sugar and sodium comes to mind. This isn't the case at all. In case of frozen fruits and vegetables, freshness is maximised by picking vegetables and fruits as soon as they're ripe and freezing them within hours of harvesting. Fruits are washed, while meats are defatted and placed in premeasured trays before being cooked. Meals are sent down conveyers and fed through tanks intended to cook food to safe temperatures throughout this procedure. Food freezing equipment is subjected to stringent sanitation requirements.

 

Flash Freezing

The meal is ready to be frozen after it has been prepared. Putting food in the freezer at home is not the same as freezing it at a factory. The water molecules in the meal are frozen in normal freezing settings, and the big crystals that form can influence the texture of the dish when warmed. That's why most manufacturers use flash-freezing, which swiftly freezes food at extremely low temperatures, resulting in fewer ice crystals and minimising food damage while keeping texture.

 

Is it Safe to Eat Frozen Foods?

When consumers think of frozen food, the phrase "processed" frequently comes to mind first. Despite the fact that the term has come to be associated with low-quality, unhealthy food, in the food industry, "processed" simply implies that the food has been altered in some manner during the preparation process. This might include everything from baking to freezing to canning. It does not imply any kind of risky behaviour.

Buyers are often concerned about the use of preservatives in processed foods since sodium benzoate, which can create the carcinogen benzene, may be present. Inflammation and ADHD are both possible side effects of sodium benzoate. The FDA, on the other hand, has determined that benzene at small doses—such as those found in food—is safe.

Although processed foods are absolutely safe to consume, this does not mean that they are always healthy. Because frozen foods are manufactured with more salt, fat, or sugar than fresh foods, they have a higher salt, fat, or sugar content. This, rather than the fact that the food is processed, is what causes consumers to shun frozen foods. However, doctors have pointed out that a number of poor lifestyle choices lead people to gain weight and face various cardiovascular diseases. Frozen food is alone cannot be blamed. It is always better to eat frozen fruits or veggies than eating no vegetables at all.

 

Pros Of Frozen Food:


More Nutrients Are Present: Frozen dinners are frequently flash-frozen, which means they are frozen fast at a lower temperature. This is significant because the food's cellular integrity is conserved, allowing all nutrients to be fully kept and stored.

Frozen foods sometimes contain more nutrients than their fresh equivalents that have travelled miles on a truck to your grocery store since fruits, vegetables, and other goods are gathered at their peak ripeness and flash-frozen within hours after harvesting.

People who ate frozen meals on a regular basis had greater daily intakes of critical nutrients like protein, fibre, and potassium, suggests a study published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

It Saves Time: In the modern hectic life, people are probably work for 8+ hours per day. The rest of the day is spent cleaning, doing laundry, running errands, attempting to get some exercise, grocery shopping, housekeeping and yard work, child care, and other activities that fuel passions. It is critical to be able to save time wherever possible. It will take less than 10 minutes to reheat a meal from the freezer.

It Is Cost Effective: Whole Foods, for example, sells 16 ounces of fresh strawberries for USD 4.99, whereas 16 ounces of frozen strawberries cost only USD 1.99. Furthermore, a lot of food worth a good amount of money can be saved because nothing goes bad when frozen, unlike fresh foods that go bad if not eaten on a weekly basis.

Waste Is Reduced: Purchasing frozen meals may reduce waste for the buyer, the supermarket, and the entire supply chain.

Portion Control: Because frozen meals are available in single-serving proportions, they can assist us in learning to portion control.


Cons Of Frozen Food:


Preservatives: To keep frozen foods fresh for longer, they are filled with sodium and chemical preservatives. These elements are hazardous to one's health.

Nutrient Loss: They're treated before being frozen, so some vitamins like B and C are lost.

Unappealing Odor: Freezing causes the loss of natural fragrances in some foods, leaving behind a strong, disagreeable odour.

Research Author: Paroma Bhattacharya

Paroma Bhattacharya has dabbled in the realm of content production for over half a decade and possesses extensive experience in penning down pieces related to healthcare, technology, banking, and a wide range of other industry verticals. Her articles focus primarily on balancing relevant data while never neglecting to make the material engaging. She believes in providing objective facts to help people make important business decisions.

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21 Sept 2021

From shipping to processing and packing to keeping food in temperature-controlled facilities, ensuring food safety is more important than ever before for the industry and supply chain. Food processors are working harder than ever to limit physical access to individuals with valid clearance and to limit the number of persons who can enter a building in order to maintain food safety and better prepare for the COVID-19 pandemic's ongoing effects.

Tightened Security for Protection in Frozen Food Processor

Food factories often use video surveillance and access control systems to improve security and productivity. Unauthorized access to a plant can be prevented by installing video cameras at important spots such as entrances, loading docks, and processing areas. Theft can also be deterred with video. If any theft or lawsuit difficulties develop as a result of the video documentation of visitor admission and the shipping or receipt of products, the video can be studied and utilized as proof. Video can also be utilized to boost production in foodprocessing or staging facilities.

For a variety of reasons, a food service organization requires well-defined storage facilities and procedures. To begin with, by offering storage facilities, it will be possible to purchase supplies in large enough quantities to qualify for price cuts. Second, having the option to store materials on site cuts down on the cost and time it takes to order supplies and handle them once they arrive. Third, knowing the quality, quantity, and sorts of materials on hand makes menu planning much easier. It's comforting to know that if a menu item is in high demand, there are enough supplies on hand to ensure that everyone who requests it is served.

Because storage is expensive in today's market, many food service organizations are limiting the amount of stock they keep on hand. Not only must space be found, but security must also be ensured. Many operators are willing to pay a little more to suppliers to avoid the hassles of tracking down expensive things like big quantities of high-quality meat, wines, and spirits.


Dry Foods


The dry food storage facility should be near the receiving area and close to the main kitchen. Unfortunately, the dry food storeroom is sometimes an afterthought in the design of food service facilities, and the allocated storage area is sometimes in an awkward place.

In the care and control of the dry storeroom, there are a few key points to remember no matter where you are. To prevent spoiling and swelling of canned goods, the location should be dry and cool. 10°C to 15°C (50°F to 59°F) is the optimal temperature range. It should be simple to keep the storage clean and free of rodents and animals. To prevent entry, all wall, ceiling, and floor openings should be sealed and covered.

It should be built in such a way that it is simple to organize and rearrange supplies in order to promote stock rotation. The optimal location for shelves is in the center of the room, where they can be stocked from both sides. This allows you to rotate stock by simply sliding fresh products in from the opposite side of the shelf and pushing out old goods. The “first-in, first-out” (FIFO) idea in stock rotation ensures that the first products received will be the first items utilized.

To prevent pilferage, food and supply storage spaces should be secured under lock and key. Controlling food storage is a crucial part of keeping food expenses under control. All storerooms should be viewed as bank safes where the operation's assets are kept. This could include storing and locking more valuable commodities like liquor and wine in a larger storage room, such as the dry food storage section.


Refrigerated Products


The refrigerator, whether it's a walk-in or a regular upright, is an important part of food storage strategy. To prevent degradation and decomposition, most fresh foods must be kept in the refrigerator. The most basic thing to remember is to keep raw products below, not above, prepared or ready-to-eat foods.

Keep an eye on the refrigerator's temperature on a daily basis. A thermometer should be included in every refrigerator so that daily readings can be obtained. Refrigerators should be kept in good operating order. Maintain a service contract with a local refrigerator repair firm on a regular basis.

The majority of problems are beyond the scope of kitchen workers, but if the refrigerator stops working, make sure the power supply wire hasn't been yanked out or the breaker hasn't tripped. Refrigerators should be cleaned on a regular basis. To make such cleaning quick and easy, shelves should be shallow and adequately vented. Make a routine to ensure that refrigerators are cleaned on a regular basis and stick to it.


Summary


The trade-offs between food safety, food security, and economic, social, and environmental sustainability must be carefully considered. These trade-offs should be based on data and risk. As demonstrated by the disastrous use of antimicrobials to promote food security through expanding food production, good intentions will not compensate for failures. Antimicrobial-free veterinary medicine and food value chains are thus a vital goal for research and development. Veterinary treatment will almost certainly change when animal production shifts from intense cereal-based farming to more vast pastoral farming.
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Functional beverages are non-alcoholic beverages and which have ingredients that serve the purpose of providing nutrients being beneficial to health. The global demand of healthy and rejuvenating drinks as compared to carbonated drinks is ever on the rise. 

There is a tough competition among brands for the same. The need for health and hygiene has always been a prime concern. With the continuing situation of Covid-19, customers have become extremely cautious about over their eating and drinking habits as it directly enters the system. 

Functional Beverages Market size in Asian, USA & Europe Market


Anything and everything needs to be sterilized. Beverages are highly susceptible to spoilage. People are moving away from the demand for carbonated drinks and there is a rising demand for probiotic drinks like curd and yoghurt and healthier fruit juices in multiple flavors. 

Consumers are willing to spend more on beverages that keeps the body hydrated for a longer time. Along with that the beverages are fortified with vitamins and minerals. The drink must satisfy the person’s thirst. This creates an ocean of opportunities for the beverage market and especially those providing functional beverages like fortified drinks and immunity boosters. The global functional beverage market size is categorized based on type, distribution channel and geography.

Based on type the drinks are energy drinks, sports drinks, fortified drinks, dairy and dairy alternative beverages and so on.


The category-based on distribution channels includes retail stores, Pharmacies or Health stores, convenience stores and online retail stores.


Beverages based on geography the market is spread across Asia, USA & Europe

 Functional beverage industry companies are generally classified into two groups. 

1. Traditional non-alcoholic beverage companies, like Pepsi or Coca Cola.

2. Major food companies, such as Nestle or Kraft Foods


The drinks need to take care of the gut health and immunity. The drinks must also be such that it is intended for weight loss or gain (thinning or fattening drinks) or with zero or very less calories, good health and beauty. Some drinks like ‘Bournvita’ is intended for children’s growing ages. Some beverages are intended for people who are either lactose intolerant or allergic to certain ingredients.


The functional beverage market works in the following ways


1. Marketing the product as healthy and energizing. It can have the target audience as sportspeople and growing children.

2.  2. It can be an extension of an existing product line. For example, let’s take the example of Horlicks. Horlicks has the extended product, Women’s Horlicks. This creates a market and not just for growing up children.

     3. Larger companies acquire smaller companies to increase the market share.


The market focuses on four different categories as

1. Hydrating drinks: These drinks focus on quenching thirst and may vary in their calorie content.


2. Energy drinks: These stimulating drink focuses on the category of athletic people and sports people

3. Weight loss drinks: Obesity is problem, people are fighting with. These have ingredients that help in cutting down fat.

4. Wellness drinks: These are soothing drinks that are meant for providing health  benefits.


The US market is a huge fan of carbonated drinks. Northern America holds a major share in the global functional beverage market and it is expected to rise in the upcoming years. European and Asian markets are expected to grow as well as are forecasted. The global functional beverage market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 6.96% during the forecast period (2020 - 2025).
Usually carbonated drinks are rich in sugar and therefore calories which has resulted in obesity and cardiovascular diseases as a primary health concern. This opens up a new avenue for low calorie or zero calorie drinks which is satisfying and healthy with minimum. Sweetening alternatives like stevia with low glycemic index. One of the main restraints to the market is that it is relatively costly as they contain specific ingredients for the target audience. 
Another concern is the addition of artificial ingredients (sweeteners, clarifiers, flavours, colouring agents and so on). Attempts are made to reduce it to a minimum as it is resulting in side effects to human health in the long-run usage including skin diseases like rashes and so on. Packaging is another concern. With waste disposal becoming a global issue, the industry has to come up with fresh ideas to pack the beverage in eco-friendly package which can be easily bio-degradable. The demand is ever-rising and so is sure to see newer changes in variants and flavours as part of new product development.
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If you want to know about devotion in the development of cultured meat, you are in the right place.  Because of eliminating the need to raise animals to reduce the environmental impact, cultured meat is fast becoming the best alternative forprotein products worldwide.  

Also, the recent bird to human transmitted SARS-CoV-2 creating havoc globally to kill millions and bring the economy to its lowest levels. The awareness of food safety is on the rise.  It is the reason that the experts confirm the global cultural meat market size is to skyrocket at a CAGR of 95.8% from 2021 to 2030 from a mere 1.64  to 2788.1 million US dollars(1).  Hence with such rapid growth, check out the many devotional practices of eating meat with cultural meat.

 

Devotion in development of Cultured Meat

Devotion for Eating Meat


Devotion for eating meat is there for a long time for Muslims, Jews, and Hindus worldwide. The Quran specifies Muslims to eat only halal meat.  So is the Kosher food that follows the Jewish dietary law of Kashrut that governs what can or cannot be eaten practising their faith. As per the Muslim dietary laws mentioned in their holy book Quran, halal meat is by slaughtering the animals alive and healthy by reciting holy versions like Tamiya and Shahada. It permits the animals to get cut by the throat to drain all the blood from the carcass with blessings.  


The animal or poultry gets a sharp cut on the jugular vein, carotid artery, and windpipe to die instantly with little suffering.  Also, experts confirm that the halal meat is soft as all the blood drains from the carcass and safe for processing and exports. Jewish dietary laws also require using a surgically sharp knife by specially trained slaughters to kill the animals and poultry for making the food permissible to eat for those following its faith.  But the difference between halal and kosher devotions is that kosher does not require any blessing or forbids eating certain carcass parts like the sciatic nerve and particular fats.  But in halal, there should be a blessing, and no eating of the testicles and bladder should. Also, Islamic dietary laws forbid haram or not permissible to eat pork.


The Increasing importance of Cultural Meat


The current global population of 7.3 billion is to surpass 9 billion by 2050 (2). At present, over 70 billion land animals get slaughtered for meat every year(3).  And with the population increasing in the coming years, more billions of animals will get killed to fulfill the meat demand globally.  

The FAO or Food and Agricultural organization predict a 70% increase in the food needs for the future population growth.  Hence, at a time like this, the expert's opinion of proliferating cultured meat is a welcome sign for many reasons.  

The most significant of it is getting the vitro meat with no slaughtering of animals to save them and mother earth from reducing their eating requirements of plants to keep the environment safe.  Because of eating 8 ounces of meat, there is 89.2 ounce of plant consumption by the animals for making that meat. Also, as per the UN World food organization report, there are thousands of acres for grazing cattle rather than growing food for humans becomes unsustainable and wasteful by compaction, erosion, nutrient loss and desertification.  Hence, cultural or vitro meat has become the best alternative for meat consumption to give the same or more amount of protein but with no environmental concerns or the health threat of using antibiotics on the animals and others.


Devotion in development of Cultured Meat

 

But as in using technology in many fields, there are many philosophical, religious and ethical issues arising out of cultural meat. Even after painlessly harvesting the muscle cells from living animals to feed and nurture them to multiply for creating muscle tissue, the major component of the meat we eat is animals. Also, studies confirm that this cultural or vitro meat is biologically the same as the meat tissue from the animals to have the same protein levels. There is an ongoing debate on devotion in cultural meat development for Muslims and Kosher for Jewish as there is no animal available for their ritual practices. 

 Though there is a different rabbinical opinion among the Jewish, many think that cultured meat is only kosher if the cells taken from a slaughtered Kosher animal. On the other hand, others think that irrespective of the source of the cells to the development of the cultural meat, they lose their original identity.  Hence both their devotions do not forbid the consumption of cultural or vitro meat.

For considering the cultural meat as halal meat, the Muslims take into account only the slaughtered animal and not the serum of blood used to make it. So they consider cultural meat as halal meat only if the cells are taken from a halal slaughtered animal.  And they do not take into account the blood and serum as they are potently impure and want to avoid if it changes the meat.


Conclusion:


The above facts will surely help you know about the devotion to developing cultured meat and their importance in replacing the meat to reduce environmental hazards and improve health with increased food safety.

 

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